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பகிர்ந்து கொள்ளவும், பார்த்துத் தெரிந்து கொள்ளவும்,
கருத்துகளைப் பதிவுசெய்யவும் இந்த இடுகைத் தளம்
உதவும் என்ற எண்ணத்தில் உருவாக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது.
The Nilgiris, because of its natural charm and pleasant climate, was a place of Special attraction for the Europeans. In 1818, Mr. Whish and Kindersley, who were assistants to the Collector of Coimbatore, discovered the place Kotagiri near Rengasamys peak. John Sullivan, the then Collector of Coimbatore was greatly interested in this country. He established his residence there and reported to the Board of Revenue on 31st July 1819.
The Name ‘Nilgiris’ means blue hills (Neelam – Blue and giri – Hill or Mountain) the first mention of this name has been found in the Silappadikaram. There is a belief that the people living in the plains at the foot of the hills, should have given the name, the Nilgiris, in view of the violet blossoms of ‘kurinji’ flower enveloping the hill ranges periodically. The earliest reference to the political history of the Nilgiris, according to W.Francies relates to the Ganga Dynasty of Mysore.
Immediately after the Nilgiris was ceded to the British in 1789, it became a part of Coimbatore district. In August 1868 the Nilgiris was separated from the Coimbatore District. James Wilkinson Breeks took over the administration of the Nilgiris as its Commissioner. In February 1882, the Nilgiris was made a district and a Collector was appointed in the place of the Commissioner. On 1st February 1882, Richard Wellesley Barlow who was the then Commissioner became the First Collector of Nilgiris.
One of the ancient cities in Tamil Nadu, Karur was ruled by the Cheras, Cholas, the Naickers, and the British successively. There is proof that Karur may have been the centre for old jewellery-making and gem setting (with the gold imported mainly from Rome), as seen from various excavations. According to the Hindu mythology, Brahma began the work of creation here, which is referred to as the “place of the sacred cow.”
Karur has a very long history and has been sung by various sangam poets. In history, it has been the battleground of various Tamil Kings like Chera, Chola, Pandya and Pallavas because of strategic location. The district has a very rich and varied cultural heritage.
Karuvoor Thevar born in Karur is one among the nine devotees who sung the divine Music Thiruvichaippa, which is the ninth Thirumurai. He is the single largest composer among the nine authors of Thiruvichaippa. He lived during the reign of the great Raja Raja Chola-I. In addition to the famous Siva temple, there is a Vishnu temple at Thiruvithuvakkodu, a suburb of Karur, sung by famous Kulasekara Alwar [7-8th century AD] who was the ruler of Kongu nadu. The same temple is presumably mentioned in epic Silappadikaram as Adaha maadam Ranganathar whose blessings Cheran Senguttuvan sought before his north Indian expedition.
Karur is one of the oldest towns in Tamil Nadu and has played a very significant role in the history and culture of the Tamils. Its history dates back over 2000 years, and has been a flourishing trading centre even in the early Sangam days. Epigraphical, numismatic, archaeological and literary evidences have proved beyond doubt that Karur was the capital of early Chera kings of Sangam age. It was called Karuvoor or Vanji during Sangam days. There has been a plethora of rare findings during the archaeological excavations undertaken in Karur. These include mat-designed pottery, bricks, mud-toys, Roman coins, Chera Coins, Pallava Coins, Roman Amphorae, Rasset coated ware, rare rings etc. Karur was built on the banks of river Amaravathi which was called Aanporunai during the Sangam days. The names of the early Chera kings who ruled from Karur, have been found in the rock inscriptions in Aru Nattar Malai close to Karur. The Tamil epic Silapathikaram mentions that the famous Chera King Cheran Senguttuvan ruled from Karur. In 150 Greek scholars Ptolemy mentioned “Korevora” (Karur) as a very famous inland trading centre in Tamil Nadu. After the early Cheras, Karur was conquered and ruled by Pandyas followed by Pallavas and later Cholas. Karur was under the rule of Cholas for a long time. Later the Naickers followed by Tipu Sultan also ruled Karur. The British added Karur to their possessions after destroying the Karur Fort during their war against Tipu Sultan in 1783. There is a memorial at Rayanur near Karur for the warriors who lost their lives in the fight against the British in the Anglo-Mysore wars. Thereafter Karur became part of British India and was first part of Coimbatore District and later Tiruchirappalli District.
Karur is also a part of Kongunadu. The history of Kongunadu dates back to the 8th century. The name Kongunadu originated from the term “Kongu”, meaning nectar or honey. Kongu came to be called as Kongunadu with the growth of civilization. The ancient Kongunadu country was made up of various districts and taluks which are currently known as Palani, Dharapuram, Karur, Nammakkal, Thiruchengodu, Erode, Salem, Dharmapuri, Satyamangalam, Nilgiris, Avinashi, Coimbatore, Pollachi and Udumalpet. Kongunadu was blessed with enormous wealth, a pleasant climate and distinct features. Kongunadu was ruled over by the Chera, Chola, Pandya, Hoysala, Muslim rulers and finally the British
The Date of human civilization in this district reaches goes far back to the stone ages. The existence of prehistoric culture in Salem is evident from the discovery of Paleolithic and Neolithic stone implements and dung ash heaps in and around Salem. A concise chronology of the district is presented.
|3rd Century B.C.||The period of Bogar – a notable Tamil Siddhar.
Arrival of Buddhism and Jainism in Salem.
1st Century A.D.
|Around the beginning of the Christian era, the existence of a culturally and economically advanced society in Salem two thousand years ago is evident from the discovery of silver coins of the Roman Emperor Tiberices Claudices Nero (37-68) in Koneripatti of Salem in 1987.|
2nd Century A.D.
|Pandiyan dynasty rules Salem.
Pandiyan Nedunchezhiyan Kanaikal Irumporai rules KolliMalai.
4th Century A.D.
|Rise of Pallava dynasty in Salem.|
6th Century A.D.
|Period of Mahendra Varma Pallva.
Rise of Saivite principles.
7th Century A.D.
|Weakening of Buddhism & Jainism.
Period of Narasimha Varma Pallava.
8th Century A.D.
|Pandiyan dynasty in Salem.|
9th Century A.D.
|Rise of Saiva samayam and fading away of Jainism and Buddhism.
Rise of Pallava.
10th Century A.D.
|Rise of Chozha dynasty and decline of Pallavas.|
11th Century A.D.
12th Century A.D.
|Rise of Hoysala rule in parts of Salem.|
13th Century AD.
|Hoysala rule established; Parts of Salem remained under Pandiyan dynasty.|
14th Century A.D.
|1310 Malikkafur goes through Salem.
1368- Salem under Vijaya Nagar Empire
15th Century A .D.
|The Chalukya rule.
Rise of Palyakarars.
16th Century A.D.
|Rule of Madurai Nayakars.
Rule of Emperor Krishnadheva Raya in part of Salem including Attur.
17th Century A.D.
|Rise of local chieftains Gatti and Nayakas.
18th Centrury A.D.
|Rule of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan.
Taking over by British.
1772 – First Collector to Salem.
19th Century A.D.:
|1856||New Revenue survey under taken ;
Settlement department established.
End of company rule and
Taking over by British Crown.
|1860||Salem city as capital of District|
|1862||Salem Central Jail built.|
|1866-67||Severe famine. (A series of famines and epidemics)|
|1875||Cholera epidemic rages.|
|1876-78||The Great famine|
|1896-97||Last famine of the century.|
Developmental activities in Salem like constructing railways and Ghat roads and construction of Mettur dam.
1947 – Salem is a independent part of Free India.
1951 – Exchange of villages between Mysore and Madras State took place under the provinces and states (Absorption of Enclaves) order 1950.
1961- Sankari Taluk was formed from Tiruchengode Taluk.
1965- Salem district was bifurcated into Salem – Dharmapuri districts (2-Oct-1965)
Salem constituted 8 Taluks – Salem , Attur, Yercaud, Omalur ,Sankari, Tiruchengode, Rasipuram and Namakkal.
Dharmapuri constituted 4 Taluks – Hosur, Krishnagiri , Harur and Dharmapuri.
1966- Mettur Taluk was formed from Omalur Taluk and Salem constituted Nine taluks.
1989 – Paramathi Velur Taluk was newly formed.
1997 – Salem District was bifurcated into Salem and Namakkal district (2-Feb-1997). Salem constituted 8 Taluks – Salem, Yercaud, Attur, Omalur, Mettur, Sankari, Gangavalli, and Idappadi and Namakkal district constituted 4 Taluks – Namakkal, Tiruchengode, Rasipuram and Paramathi-Velur
1998 – Attur Division was newly formed and a new Taluk Valappadi was formed. Salem attained its present administrative set-up.
In the early 15th Century the present territories of Ramanathapuram district comprising of taluks Tiruvadanai, Paramakudi, Kamuthi, Mudukulathur, Ramanathapuram and Rameswaram were included in Pandiyan Kingdom. For a short period, this area was under the Chola Kings when Rajendra Chola brought it under his territory in 1063 AD. In 1520 AD., the Nayaks of Vijayangar took over this area under their control from the Pandiyan dynasty for about two centuries, Marava chieftains-Sethupathis who were Lords under Pandiyan Kings and reigned over this part (17th century). At the beginning of the 18th century, family disputes over succession resulted in the division of Ramanathapuram. With the help of the King of Thanjavur in 1730 A.D. one of the chieftains deposed Sethupathy and became the Raja of Sivaganga. Acting upon the weakness of the Nayak rules, the local chieftains (Palayakarars) became independent. Raja of Sivagangai, Sethupathy of Ramanathapuram were prominent among them. In 173, Chand, a Sahib of Carnatic, captured Ramanathapuram. In 1741, the area came under the control of the Marattas and then under the Nizam in 1744 AD, Nawab’s rule made displeasure in the mind of those chieftains. That made them declare the last Nayak as ruler of Pandiya Mandalam against the Nawab in 1752 AD. By that time, throne of Carnatic had two rivals, Shanda Sahib and Mohamed Ali, and this district was part of Carnatic. The British and French supported Chanda Sahib and Mohamed Ali respectively. It paved the way for series of conflicts in the southern part of the continent.
In 1795, the British deposed Muthuramalinga Sethupathy and took control of the administration of Ramanathapuram. In 1801 Mangaleswari Nachiyar was made the Zamindar of Sivagangai After passing of Queen, the Marudhu Brothers took the charge by paying regular revenue to the East India company. In 1803 the Marudhu Brothers of Sivaganga revolted against the British in collaboration with Kattabomman of Panchalamkurichi. Colonel Agnew captured Marudhu Brothers and hanged them and made Gowri Vallbah Periya Udaya Thevar as Zamindar of Sivaganga. After the fall of Tippu Sultan, British took the control and imprisoned the Nawab. In 1892 the Zamindari system was abolished and a British Collector was appointed for administration.
In 1910, Ramanathapuram was formed by clubbing portions from Madurai and Tirunelveli district. Shri J.F. BRYANT I.C.S was the first collector. And this district was named as Ramanathapuram. During the British period this district was called “Ramnad”. The name continued after independence. Later the district was renamed as Ramanathapuram to be in conformity with the Tamil Name for this region.
As per GO.Ms.No. 347 dated 8.3.1985, Ramanathapuram was trifurcated on 15-3-85 as
1) Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar District which consists of Thiruppattur, Karaikudi, Devakottai, Sivaganga, Manamadurai and Ilaiyankudi Taluks. This district was later renamed as Sivaganga district
2) Kamarajar District which consist of Sriviliputtur, Virudhunagar, Chiruchuli, Aruppukottai, Sattur and Rajapalayam Taluks.This district was later renamed as Virudhunagar district.
3) Ramanathapuram District, which consists of Tiruvadanai, Paramakudi, Kamuthi, Mudukulathur, Ramanathapuram and Rameswaram Taluks
Shri S.GURUMURTHY I.A.S was the district collector during the trifurcation of the Ramanathapuram district.
One village (Emaneswaram) of Ilaiyankudi Taluk in Sivagangai district was transferred to Paramakudi Taluk in Ramanathapuram District as per GO.Ms.No.393/Revenue Department Dated 15.03.1985. Rameswaram sub taluk was upgraded into full-fledged taluk as per GO.Ms.No.3248 dated 23.12.1981.
The Erstwhile Mudukulathur Taluk was bifurcated as Mudukulathur and Kadaladi Taluks as per GO.Ms.No. 277/Revenue Department dated 15.3.1995
23 Revenue villages of Tiruvadanai Taluk in Ramanathapuram district were transferred to Devakottai taluk in Sivagangai district as per GO.Ms.No. 698/Revenue Department dated 21.8.1998 with effect from 1.9.1998.
One Revenue village (Valanai) of Tiruvadanai Taluk in Ramanathapuram district was transferred to Sivagangai taluk in Sivagangai District as per the GO.Ms.No.874/Revenue Department dated 29.10.98 with effect from 20.2.99
Tirunelveli the penultimate southern most district of Tamil Nadu, is described as a microcosm of the State, owing to its mosaic and diverse geographical and physical features such as lofty mountains and low plains, dry Teri structures, rivers and cascades, seacoast and thick inland forest, sandy soils and fertile alluvium, a variety of flora, fauna, and protected wild life.
Thenpandiyanadu of the early Pandyas, Mudikonda Cholamandalam of the Imperial Cholas, Tirunelveli Seemai of the Nayaks, Tinnevelly district of the East India Company and the British administration and Tirunelveli district of Independent India was bifurcated on 20th October 1986. The divided districts are called as Nellai-Kattabomman district and Chidambaranar (Tuticorin) district. Subsequently the district name was christened as Tirunelveli-Kattabomman district. As per the decision of the Government of Tamil Nadu to call all the districts by the name of the headquarter town, Tirunelveli-Kattabomman district is now Tirunelveli district. Chidambaranar district is now called as Thoothukudi district
From the 19th century AD, District Collectors and Judges appointed by the British controlled the area. In 1910, the District of Ramanathapuram was created for reasons of administrative convenience, by carving-out territories from Madurai and Tirunelveli Districts. In 1948, after India attained independence, the zamins were abolished.
In 1985, the Ramanathapuram District was trifurcated to create the districts of Ramanathapuram, Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar Tirumagan(later renamed Sivaganga) and Kamarajar District (later renamed Virudhunagar District).
The District headquarters is Virudhunagar town. It covers an area of 4232 sq. km. and is divided into 8 taluks, namely Aruppukkottai, Kariapatti, Rajapalayam, Sattur, Sivakasi, Srivilliputur, Tiruchuli and Virudhunagar.
Dindigul district was carved out of the composite Madurai District on 15.9.1985 and the first District Collector was Thiru.M.Madhavan Nambiar, I.A.S. Dindigul District had the names of Dindigul Anna Quaid-e-Milleth and Mannar Thirumalai.
Dindigul, which was under the rule of the famous Muslim Monarch, Tippusultan, has a glorious past. The historical Rock Fort of this district was constructed by the famous Naik King Muthukrishnappa Naicker. It is located between 10005” and 100 9” North Latitude and 77030” and 78020” East Longitude.