வேலூர் மாவட்ட‍ வரலாறு

     Vellore, the Head- Quarters  of  Vellore District  situated   in 12′ 35′ N and 79′ 9′ E , has a very interesting History of its own. A strategically  located town, it is  well connected  by Rail  and bus routes to major towns of the neighboring states like A.P. Karnataka and Kerala. The History of  the district assumes a great significance and relevance, as we unfold the glorious past. It was  under  the  sway   of  various dynasties and  rulers, the  prominent  among them being the Pallavas , Cholas of Uraiyur,  the  Rashtrakutaa  dynasty of  Malkhed, Sambuvarayar,  the rulers of  Vijayanagarm, Mamathas, the Nawabs of the carnatic and the British. The Monuments found  in the district  give a vivid picture of the town through the ages. In the 18 th Century Vellore District was  the  scene of  some of  the  decisive bettles fought in Ambur (1749) A.D Arcot (1751) A.D and Vandivasi (1760A.D) as a result  of  the long -drawn struggle between the English and the French for Supremacy.

One of the monuments of Vellore is the fort and its exact date of construction could not be established, in the absence of proper records. A very close examination of the stone inscriptions suggests that the fort in all probability might have been built during the rule of Chinna. Bommi Nayak (1526 to 1595A. D) . The fort is one of the most perfect specimens of Military architecture in S.India.

The Jalakandeswarar  Temple inside the fort  is  very  fine example of Vijayanagar architecture. The Kalyanamantap, on   the left of  the entrance, with  intricate caring   and delicacy  of exaction, bears testimony  to the engineering marble and advanced state of sculpture of the times. Another land mark that has put  Vellore on the center stage of Medical world is the  Christian  Medical  College  Hospital.  Dr . IDA  Scudder,  the  American  lady,  with a  missionary zeal, started her Medical work in 1900 A.D. by setting up a very small Hospital, which in the last hundred years has grown into a premier Medical  Institution of  international  repute.  The central prison in Vellore ,  set up in  1830 A.D. is  another  Historically important land mark as some eminent personalities and Freedom Fighters like Thiru. Rajaji, Thiru C.N. Annadurai, Thiru. K. Kamaraj , the former presidents of India Thiru. V.V.Giri, Thiru. R.VenkataRaman had served their prison terms here. The other  note  worthy  monuments are the Mausoleums located in Aruganthampoodi area on the Vellore – Arcot road, where  the  family  members of  Tippu Sultan were  buried and  the  Muthu mandapam on  the banks of river of palar, a memorial  raised by  the Tamil Nadu Government to honor Vikarama Rja Singha , the last  Tamil King who ruled Kandy (Srilanka ) from 1798 to 1815 A.D. He was imprisoned in Vellore fort for 17 years.

இங்கே பதிக்கப்ட்டது: on மே 31, 2009 at 8:36 முப  பின்னூட்டமொன்றை இடுங்கள்  

கிருட்டிணகிரி மாவட்ட‍ வரலாறு

The Krishnagiri district has prehistoric importance. Archeological sources confirm the presence of habitats of man kind during Paleolithic, Neolithic and Mesolithic Ages. Various rock paintings and rock carvings of Indus Valley civilization and Iron Age seen in this district support the historical significance of this district. The heart of ‘Krishnagiri’, ‘Hosur’ and ‘Uthangarai’ were known as ‘Eyil Nadu’, ‘Murasu Nadu’ and ‘Kowoor Nadu’ respectively. During Chola period, Krishnagiri region was called ‘Nigarili Chola Mandlam’ and ‘Vidhugadhazhagi Nallur’. Under ‘Nulamba’ rule it was popular as ‘Nulambadi’ according to historical sources.

Hero stones were erected for those whose lost their lives in pursuit of adventure. There was a tradition of erecting memorial stones for people who sacrifice their lives for the sake of their kings since ‘Sangam Age’. These memorial stones were called ‘Navagandam’. Plenty of memorial stones available in this district speak volumes about the valour and virtues of the people. Part of Salem, Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri and Mysore were together named as “Thagadur Nadu” in Sangam Age. “Adhiayaman”, the noble king offered ‘Karunelli’ (Goose Berry) to the great poetess “Avvaiyar” who adorned his court for her long life. Krishnagiri was once ruled by Adhiyaman and hence also known as ‘Adhiayaman Nadu’. This region was ruled by Pallavas, Gangas, Nulambas, Cholas, Hoysalas, Vijaya Nagar Emperors, Bijapur Sultans, Wudayars of Mysore and Nayaks of Madurai. This region of Krishnagiri served as gateway of Tamil Nadu and the protective barrier for Sourthern region defending onslaughts from barriers with motives of imperialism and exploitation. Twelve Forts in this region were popularly known as ‘Bara Mahal’ Forts. These forts have borne the funs of many attacks by Mysore and Andhra rulers. Krishnagiri Fort become the first and forth most defensive place. The majestic fortress built on Krishnagiri hill by the Vijaya Nagar Emperors, stands as testimony still now. ‘ “Kundani” a place in Krishnagiri District was once the Head Quarters of the Hoysala king ‘Veera Ramanathan’ in 13th Centuty AD. ‘Jagadevarayan’, Hoysala kind made’Jagadevi’ (one of the ‘Bara Mahal’ forts) as his capital.

During Mysore war I the British troops passed through Krishnagiri to attack Hyder Ali’s Forces at ‘Kaveripattinam’. British army was defeated here. In Mysore war II entire region of Salem and Karnataka came under Hyder Ali’s control. Hyder Ali fought bravely against the English at Krishnagiri.

In Mysore war II after the “Treaty of Srirangapattinam” entire region of Salem and Barah Mahal were surrendered to the British. In 1792 AD, Captain Alexander Reed became the first District Collector of this region. Under the diplomacy of Robert Clive, the then Governor of Madras Presidency, Krishnagiri became the headquarters of Bara Mahal.

A mint was established at Krishnagiri in 1794 AD. Gold, silver and copper coins were forged here. Rayakottai once the strong hold of British lost its importance for defense by 1880 AD. Many soldiers from Krishnagiri region took part in the world war and lost their lives. Even today a large number of youth from this Krishnagiri district are in the service of our Mother Land. Many patriots and sons of this soil participated in the nations freedom struggle. One among them was the “Wise Old Man, Dr .C. Raja Gopalachari”, who hailed from a small village in this district rose to the highest position in the nation as the first Governor General of independent India and also as Chief Minister.

The historical importance and potential growth in education, economy and tourism of present Krishnagiri made it necessary to create a separate district. Krishnagiri was formed as 30th district by the Government of Tamil Nadu. Krishnagiri district was carved out of Dharmapuri district on 09th February 2004 with five taluks and ten blocks. Thiru. Mangat Ram Sharma, I.A.S. has administered the office as first Collector of Krishnagiri District.

இங்கே பதிக்கப்ட்டது: on மே 31, 2009 at 8:31 முப  பின்னூட்டமொன்றை இடுங்கள்  

கோவை மாவட்ட‍ வரலாறு

       Originally Coimbatore district formed part of the Kongu country, the history of which dates back to the Sangam age. It is found that in early days the area was inhabited by tribes, the most predominant among them being the Kosars who are reported to have had their headquarters at Kosampathur which probably later became the present Coimbatore. However, tribal predominance did not last long as they were over-run by the Rashtra Kutas. From Rashtrakutas the region fell into the hands of the Cholas who were in prominence at the time of Raja Raja Chola. On the decline of Cholas the Kongu territory was occupied by the Chalukyas and then by the Pandyas and the cysalas. Due to internal strife in the Pandyan kingdom the Muslim rulers from Delhi happened to interfere. Thus the area fell into the hands of Madurai Sultanate from whom the Vijayanagar rulers wrestled for the region during 1377-78 after overthrowing the Madurai Sultanate. For a few years the area remained under independent control of Madurai Nayaks.

During the period of Muthu Veerappa Nayak and later during the period of Tirumal Nayak internal strife and intermittent wars ruined the kingdom. As a consequence during the period of Tirumal Nayak, the Kongu region fell into the hands of the Mysore rulers from whom hyder Ali took over the area. However, consequent on the fall of Tippu Sultan of Mysore in 1799, the Kongu region came to be ceded to the East India Company by the Maharaja of Mysore who was restored to power by the East India Company after defeating Tippu Sultan. From then till 1947 when India attained Independence, the region remained under British control who initiated systematic revenue administration in the area.

To begin with, Coimbatore was in two parts for purposes of revenue administration. In 1804, the areas were merged into one and brought under one District Collector.During that time, Mr.H.S.GREAME,[I/C] from 20/10/1803 to 20/01/1805 was the Collector. In 1868, the Nilgiris District was bifurcated from the Coimbatore District. At the opening of the present century there were ten taluks in the district viz., Bhavani, Coimbatore, Dharapuram, Erode, Karur, Kollegal, Palladam, Pollachi, Satyamangalam and Udumalaipettai. The name of Satyamangalam taluk was subsequently changed as Gopichettipalaiyam. Avinashi taluk was formed in the year Karur taluk happened to be transferred to Tiruchirappalli district. In 1927, some villages of Bhavani taluk together with a few villages from Salem district were constituted into Mettur Area but very soon i.e. in 1929, this area was transferred to Salem district. Again in the year 1956 considerable area of the district, viz., the whole of Kollegal taluk was transferred to Mysore State as part of the States Re-organisation Scheme. In 1975, Satyamangalam sub-taluk was upgraded as a full fledged taluk. Again in 1979, Perundurai sub-taluk of Erode and Mettuppalaiyam sub-taluk of Avanashi were also upgraded into independent taluks. Thus the total number of taluks in the district came to twelve. This, however, did not last long. In the same year (1979) six taluks were bifurcated from the district to constitute a new district viz., Erode. Under G.O. Ms. No. 1917 Revenue dt. 31-8-79, the following six taluks were bifurcated from the then Coimbatore district to form Erode district. Bhavani, Gopichettipalaiyam, Satyamangalam, Erode, Perundurai and Dharapuram. This bifurcation considerably reduced the size of the district. It has only nine taluks now, viz. Pollachi, Coimbatore(North), Avanashi, Palladam, Udumalpettai, Tirupur,Valparai,Coimbatore(South) and Mettuppalayam. As per G.O.Ms. No. 617, 618 Revenue dt 24.10.2008, the four taluks from Coimbatore District (i.e. Tiruppur, Udumalpet, Palladam and Avinashi(Part) and three taluks from Erode districts (i.e.Dharapuram, Kangeyam and Perundurai (Part) were bifurcated and formed as Tiruppur District.

இங்கே பதிக்கப்ட்டது: on மே 31, 2009 at 8:24 முப  பின்னூட்டமொன்றை இடுங்கள்  

சிவகங்கை மாவட்ட‍ வரலாறு

         Sivaganga District has been carved out from composite Ramnad District as per G.O. MS. No. 1122 Rev. Dept. Dated. 6.7.84 and the District was functioning from 15.3.85 as per G.O Ms.No. 346 Rev. dept. Dated: 8.3.85. 

THE HISTORY OF SIVAGANGA: The Kingdom of Ramnad originally comprised of the territories of Ramnad, Sivaganga and Pudukottai of today. Regunatha Sethupathy alias Kilavan Sethupathy, the 7th King of Ramnad reigned between 1674 and 1710. Kilavan Sethupathy, came to know of the bravery and valour of Peria Oodaya Thevar of Nalukottai, 4 Kilometres from Sholapuram near Sivaganga. 

The King assigned to Peria Oodaya Thevar of Nalukottai a portion of land sufficient to maintain 1000 armed men. Vijaya Regunatha Sethupathy became the 8th King of Ramnad in 1710 after the death of Kilavan Sethupathy. The King gave in marriage his daughter AKILANDESWARI NACHIAR, to Sasivarna Thevar, the son of Nalukottai Peria Oodaya Thevar. The King gave Sasivarna Thevar lands as dowry, free of taxation, sufficient to maintain 1,000 men. He placed him in charge of the fortresses of Piranmalai, Tiruppathur, Sholapuram and Tiruppuvanam as well as the harbour of Thondi. Meanwhile Bhavani Sankaran, the son of Kilavan Sethupathy conquered Ramnad territory and arrested Sundareswara Regunatha Sethupathy, the 9th King of Ramnad. Bhavani Sankaran proclaimed himself as the Rajah of Ramnad. He became the 10th king of Ramnad and he reigned from 1726 to 1729. He quarrelled with Sasivarna Peria Oodaya Thevar of Nalukottai and drove him out of his Nalukottai palayam. Kattaya Thevan, the brother of the late Sundareswara Regunatha Sethupathy fled from Ramnad and sought refuge with the Rajah of Tanjore Tuljaji. While Sasivarna Thevar was passing through the jungles of Kalayarkoi, he met a Gnani (sage) named Sattappiah, who was performing Thapas (meditation) under a jambool tree near a spring called `SIVAGANGA’ . The deposed king prostrated himself before him and narrated all the previous incidents of his life. The Gnani whispered a certain mantra in his ears (Mantra Opadesam) and advised him to go to Tanjore and kill a ferocious tiger which was kept by the Rajah especially to test the bravery of men. Sasivarna Thevar went to Tanjore. There he became acquainted with Kattaya Thevan a refugee like himself. Satisfied with the good behaviour of Sasivarma Thevar and Kattaya Thevan, the Rajah of Tanjore wanted to help them to regain the States again, ordered his DALAVOY to go with a large army to invade Bhavani Sankaran. Sasivarna Thevar and Kattaya Thevan at once proceeded to Ramnad with a large army furnished by the king of Tanjore. They defeated Bhavani Sankaran at the battle of Uraiyur and captured Ramnad in 1730. Thus Kattaya Thevan became the 11th King of Ramnad. 

Ist RAJAH SASIVARNA THEVAR (1730 – 1750 ) Kattaya Thevan divided Ramnad into five parts and retained three for himself. He granted the two parts to Sasivarna Thevar of Nalukottai conferring on him the title of “Rajah Muthu Vijaya Regunatha Peria Oodaya Thevar”. 

2nd RAJAH – MUTHU VADUGANATHA PERIA OODAYA THEVAR (1750 – 1772). 
Sasivarna Peria Oodaya Thevar died in or about the year 1750. He was succeeded by his only son Muthu Vaduganatha Peria Oodaya Thevar. He was the second Rajah of Sivaganga. His wife Rani Velu Nachiar acted as “friend, Philosopher and guide” to him. Tandavaraya Pillai was the able minister of Sivaganga country. Muthu Vaduganatha Peria Oodaya Thevar granted commercial facilities to the Dutch only after the English rejected a similar offer, made to Colonel Heron. Further the aim of the English was to oblige the ruler of Sivaganga to serve the Nawab or to pay tribute to him or to dissuade them from establishing relations with foreign powers like the Dutch. A two pronged offensive was made by the English. Joseph Smith from the east and Benjour from the west invaded Sivaganga Palayam in June 1772. The country was full of bushes of cockspur thorn, though there were villages and open spaces here and there. Rajah Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar, in anticipation of the invasion, erected barriers on the roads, dug trenches and established posts in the woods of Kalayarkoil. On the 21st of June of 1772 the detatchment of Smith and Benjour effected a junction and occupied the town of Sivaganga. The next day, the English forces marched to Kalayarkoil and captured the posts of Keeranoor and Sholapuram. Now, Benjour continuing the operations came into conflict with the main body of the troops of Sivaganga on the 25th June 1772. Muthu Vaduganatha Rajah with many of his followers fell dead in that heroic battle. The heroic activities shown in the battle field by Velu Nachiar is praised by the Historians. The widow queen Velu Nachiar and daughter Vellachi Nachiar with Tandavaraya Pillai fled to Virupakshi in Dindigul. Later they were joined by the two able Servaigarars Vellai Marudu and Chinna Marudhu. 

3rd RANI VELU NACHIAR (1772 – 1780) Rani Velu Nachiar and her daughter Vellachi Nachiar lived under the protection of Hyder Ali at Virupakshi near Dindigul. Frustrated by the joining of forces against him, the Nawab ordered that Velu Nachiar and Marudhu Brothers were permitted to return to Sivaganga and rule the country subject to payment of Kist to the Nawab. Abiding by this Order, Rani Velu Nachiar accompanied by Marudu brothers and Vellachi Nachiar entered Sivaganga. An agreement was reached where by Rani Velu Nachiar was permitted to govern the Sivaganga Country and Chinna Marudu, the younger was appointed her minister and the elder Vellai Marudu as the Commander-in-chief. Thus the widow Queen Velu Nachiar succeeded her husband in 1780.

The Queen Velu Nachiar granted powers to Marudhu Brothers to administer the country in 1780. Velu Nachiar died a few years later, but the exact date of her death is not known (it was about 1790). Marudu brothers are the sons of Udayar Servai alias Mookiah Palaniappan Servai and Anandayer alias Ponnathal. They are native of Kongulu street of Ramnad. They belonged neither to the family of the ancient poligars nor to their division of the caste.

 


Servaikaran was the caste title and Marudu the family name. The Marudu Brothers served under Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar. Later they were elevated to the position of Commanders. Boomerangs are peculiar to India. Two forms of this weapons are used in India. These weapons are commonly made of wood. It is cresent-shaped on end being heavier than the other and the outer edge is sharpened. Their name in Tamil is VALARI stick. It is said that Marudu Brothers were experts in the art of throwing the valari stick. It is said that Marudus used Valari in the POLIGAR wars against the English. The Marudu brothers with 12,000 armed men surrounded Sivaganga and plundered the Nawab’s territories. The Nawab on the 10th of March 1789 appealed to the Madras Council for aid. On 29th April 1789, the British forces attacked Kollangudi. It was defeated by a large body of Marudu’s troops. He was in close association with Veera Pandiya Kattabomman of Panchalankurichi. Kattabomman held frequent consultations with Marudhus. After the execution of Kattabomman in 17th October 1799 at Kayattar, Chinna Marudhu gave asylum to Kattabomman’s brother Oomadurai (dumb brother). He issued an epoch-making Jumboo Deweepa proclamation to the people in the island of Jamboo the peninsular South India to fight against the English whether they were Hindus, Mussalamans or Christians. At last the Marudhu Pandiyars fell a victim to the cause of liberating the motherland from the English supremacy. Marudu Pandiyan the popular leader of the rebels, together with his gallant brother Vellai Marudu were executed on the ruins of fort at Tiruppathur in SIVAGANGA District on 24th October 1801. They showed their determination and spirit at the outset of the final struggle of 1801 by setting their handsome village Siruvayal on fire to prevent its being made use of by the English forces.

Marudu brothers were not only warriers and noted for bravery, but they were very great Administrators. During the period from 1783 to 1801, they worked for the welfare of the people and the Sivaganga Seemai was reported as fertile. They constructed many notable temples (i.e Kalayarkoil) Ooranis and Tanks.  

After, so many successions of legal heirs ruled the estate, lastly, Sri D.S. Karthikeya Venkatachalapathy Rajah succeeded to the estate of late Sri. D. Shanmuga Rajah and he was the Hereditary Trustee of Sivaganga. Devasthanam and Chatrams consisting of 108 temples, 22 Kattalais and 20 Chatrams. Sri. D.S. Karthikeya Venkatachalapathy Rajah passed away in 30.8.1986 leaving a daughter named Tmt.. Maduranthagi Nachiyar as his heir. At present, Tmt. Maduranthagi Nachiyar is administering the Sivaganga Estate , Sivaganga Devasthanam and Chatram of Sivaganga Royal Family now. Based on the “District Gazette” 1990 of Ramanathapuram, and the history of Sivaganga maintained by Samasthanam, Sivaganga District has been formed mostly with an area of entire Sivaganga Zamin and part of Ramnad Zamin.

இங்கே பதிக்கப்ட்டது: on மே 31, 2009 at 8:19 முப  பின்னூட்டமொன்றை இடுங்கள்  

ஈரோடு மாவட்ட‍ வரலாறு

Erode District was a part of Coimbatore has its history intervened with that of Coimbatore and because of its close linkage with the erstwhile Coimbatore district.  It is very difficult to separately deal with the history of Erode region.  Together with the area comprised in the Coimbatore district, it formed part of the ancient Kongu country known as “Kongu Nadu” history of which dates back to the Sangam era.  It is found that in the early days, this area was occupied by tribes, most prominent among them being the “Kosars” reportedly having their headquarters at ‘Kosamputhur’ which is believed to have in due course become Coimbatore.  These tribes were overpowered by the Rashtrakutas from whom the region fell into the hands of the Cholas who ruled supreme during the time of Raja Chola.  On the decline of Cholas, the Kongunadu came to be occupied by the Chalukyas and later by the Pandyas and Hoysalas.  Due to internal dissension in the Pandian Kingdom, the Muslim rulers from Delhi interfered and thus the area fell into the hands of Madurai Sultanate. This region was later wrested by         Vijaya Nagar rulers after over throwing the Madurai Sultanate.  For a few years, the area remained under Vijaya Nagar rule and later under the independent control of Madurai Nayakas.  The rule of Muthu Veerappa Nayak and later that of Tirumalai Nayak were marked by internal strife and intermittent wars which ruined the Kingdom.  As a result of this, the Kongu region in which the present Erode District is situated, fell into the hands of the Mysore rulers from whom Hyder Ali took over the area.  Later, consequent of the fall of Tippu Sultlan of Mysore in 1799, the Kongu region came to be coded  to the East India Company by the Maharaja of Mysore who was restored to power by the company after defeating Tippu Sulltan.  From then, till 1947 when India attained independence, the area remained under British control who initiated systematic revenue administration in the area.

இங்கே பதிக்கப்ட்டது: on மே 31, 2009 at 7:33 முப  பின்னூட்டமொன்றை இடுங்கள்  

கடலூர் மாவட்ட‍ வரலாறு

 The    history   of    the    systematic administration   of   the  Land   Revenue of   erstwhile      South Arcot District  begins  with  the   acquisition from the Nawab  in  1801, when the Nawab made  over  the Carnatic  to  the  Company , Captain   Graham  was  appointed  to   take charge  of the  District  lying  between Palar and Portonovo rivers  and  become the first Collector South Arcot.

The then district consisted of the 21 Taluks of Arcot, Vellore, Thiruvathur, Polur, Arani     (  The  Jagir  of  that name  )  Wandiwash, Chetpet ,  Thiruvannamalai ,  Gingee ,Tindivanam , Valudavur,  Villupuram , Anniyur ,  Tirukoilur ,  Thiruvennainallur , Tiruvadi ,  Elavanasur, Kallakurichi , Vridhachalam ,  Tittagudi  and  Bhuvanagiri but excluded the form of Fort St.David and the territory of Pondicherry, both of which had been separately acquired and were separately administered. In April 1805, the then  Taluk  of   Mannarkudi  ( which is included  in  what  is  now  known  as Chidambaram )  was added from Tiruchirapalli  to  this  huge  charge.

In 1808, However Arcot, Vellore, Thiruvathur ,  Polur ,  and   Arani   Jagir   were transferred to North  Arcot  and  Wandiwash to Cheingelput  while  the  Fort  St.David  and Pondicherry  villages    (which at different time had  been  under  both,  the  Collector and the commercial   resident  at  Cuddalore)  were incorporated with the District. In 1816, Pondicherry was finally restored to the French and erstwhile South Arcot assumed practically its position.    Cuddalore  ,   which is   District Headquarters for South Arcot District for more than a century. This has been mentioned everywhere in the history. The present Cuddalore District has been formed on 30.9.1993.

In puraana this district is described as part of Sri. Rama Khetra. This district is a primitive one. Vridhachalam is an  example where mountain once prevailed disappeared at times.Historic evidence available from madras district gazetteers south arcot published in 1962 reveals that the nameArcotderived from TamilAaru kadu’ i.e. six forests which was said to be the abode of six rishis. This district in Tamil calledThondai Naduand in particularNadu Naadu ’.   It has a specialitySaandror udaithu’ i.e great and elite personalities possession of the district.

To prove it saivaite pathmakers Thirunaukkarasu, Sundarar born in this district. Maikaudar one of the sithas out of eighteen born in this district. This district is proud of possessing as birth place of Vallalar Ramalingar.

Ovvaiyar, the Tamil poetess gave in marriage angavai, sangavai, the daughters of pari the vallal in Tirukoilur to the king Deiviekan.

The famous typical and universal logic temple of Sri Natarajan is situated in this district. It is an interesting subject to scientists and innovators to research on the dancing postage of Lord Sri. Nataraja.  

இங்கே பதிக்கப்ட்டது: on மே 31, 2009 at 7:28 முப  பின்னூட்டமொன்றை இடுங்கள்  

குமரி மாவட்ட‍ வரலாறு

The area comprising the present Kanniakumari district was a part of the erstwhile Travancore state. In 1835, when the state was divided in to Northern and Southern divisions , this area formed part of Southern division and was placed in the charge of Dewan Peishkar, Kottayam. In July 1949, when the United States of Travancore and Cochin was inaugurated, the present Kanniyakumari area continued to be a part of Trivandrum district of Kerala State.

 

     The people of Agasteeswarem, Thovalai, Kalkulam and Vilavancode Taluks, which formed the southern divisions of the former Trivandrum District, were predominantly Tamil speaking. They agitated for the merger of this area with Madras State. The States Reorganisation Commission also recommended this. Accordingly, the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 was passed and the Kanyakumari District was formed on 1st November 1956 , with the four Taluks, Viz., Agasteeswarem, Thovalai, Kalkulam and Vilavancode and merged with Tamil Nadu.  Thiru. R .Thirumalai I.A.S assumed charge as  the first Collector of Kanniakumari District on 01.11.1956.

இங்கே பதிக்கப்ட்டது: on மே 31, 2009 at 7:17 முப  பின்னூட்டமொன்றை இடுங்கள்  

புதுகை மாவட்ட‍ வரலாறு

         Pudukkottai was organised as a separate district, on 14th January 1974, comprising the former Pudukkottai Division of Tiruchirappalli district with some additions from Thanjavur district.  At present, this district is composed of two Revenue Divisions, namely, Pudukkottai and Aranthangi and nine Taluks, namely,  Kulathur, Illuppur, Alangudi, Pudukkottai, Gandarvakottai, Thirumayam, Aranthangi, Avudaiyrakoil and Manamelkudi.  There are  765 Revenue Villages. The area of the district is 4663 Sq.Kms. The population of the district is 14,52,269 (as per Census 2001 Provisional figures).  The district depends a great deal on the monsoon for its water supply.

Many of the villages are of ancient foundation.  The district was one of the homes of pre-historic man.  A very large number of burial sites found in the northern and western parts of the district attest this fact.

A very brief sketch of political history is given here in order to appreciate and understand the mixed legacy of antiquities, monuments, epigraphs and the like.  The history of Pudukkottai is an epitome of the history of South India.  In and around Pudukkottai,  there are many vestiges of the oldest habitations of man and some of the lithic records known in the south.  The Pandyas, Cholas, Pallavas, Haysalas, Vijaynagar and Madurai Nayaks ruled over this part of the country and fostered it’s communual organisations, trade and industries and embellished it with temples and monuments of outstanding merit.

Sangam Tamil literatures mention some place names of the district.  Oliyamangalam (Thirumayam Taluk) is called as Ollaiyur in Purananuru.  It was the birth place of poet Ollaiyur Kilan Makan Perumchattan and Ollaiyur Thantha Budha Pandyan.   Agananuru also mentions Ollaiyur.  It seems to have been an important city of the Pandyas.  Four other places also find place in the Sangam classics.  They are Ambukkovil, the ancient Alumbil, referred to in Agananuru;  Avur the home of the poets Avurkilar, Avur Mulamkilar; Erichi, the ancient Erichalur which  had been identified with Erichi Village in Pudukkottai – Aranthangi road (But according to  recent researches a village near Illupur). It was probably the home of the poet Madalan Madurai Kumaranar.  Avayapatti is traditionally associated with Avvaiyar, who is believed to have lived here for some time.

This district was under the Pandyas of the first empire during Sangam period, but some part of it’s northern boundary had been under the influence of the Cholas of Uraiyur, since a few villages here bear the prefix like “killi” and “valavan” both of which are the titles of the Cholas.

The district shares the large prosperity of the maritime trade of the Tamils, Karukkakurichi, the place of find of a treasure trove of more than 500 Imperial Roman Gold and Silver Coins, the largest ever recorded from a single hoard deserves notice in the context of the early history of the district. This place lies in Alangudi taluk, with in a short distance north of Aranthangi and the adjoining old ports of Mimisal and Saliyur in the same area and Tondi further south.  The site of find would mark an  important Indo-Roman trading centre, through which the inland trade route ran between the western and eastern ports during that time.

This is indicated by a chain of such Roman coin hoard sites such as Korkai, Kilakkarai, Alagankulam all on the eastern sea coast.  While Karukkakuruchi is a bit inland but not far away from port like Mimisal.  There are also few other sites of such finds in the east coast.  These, while pointing out the exchanges of the exportable products for Roman gold and silver currency would also indicate the places mentioned to have been active trade centres.  The Karukkakurichi hoard contained the issues of the Roman emperors and their queens, successively from Augustus(BC 29 – AD 14) upto Vaspasianus (69-79 AD).

From about the end of fourth century about the last quarter of sixth, the district, like many other parts of Tamil Nadu was under the Kalabhras. It must have come under the King Kurran, inscription of whom has been found in Pulankurichi  near Ponnamaravathi in the district.

The next phase in the history of the district, follows the overthrow of Kalabharas by Kadungon in Pandya country about 590 AD.  The first Pandya empire inaugurated by Kadungon spread in to the district.  This is shown by the presence of inscription of the rulers of this dynasty in Kudumianmalai, Thirugokarnam and Sittannavasal.  The poem, Pandimandala sathakam  states that Pandya land’s northern frontier was river Vellar. The Vellar that flows north of Pudukkottai town has been from the ancient times was the traditional boundary separating the terrains of the Cholas and Pandyas.  This dividing line formed the Konadu and Kanadu, on the north and south respectively.

Thus the district became a kind of marchar land between the Pandyas and Pallavas.  The Pandyas and Pallavas carried on the wars by proxy through their subordinate chiefs the Mutharayars and Velirs.   Among the Velirs the most well known are the Irukkuvels of Kodumbalur.  The Kodumbalur Velirs located in the political buffer zone between the kingdoms of the Cholas and Pandyas and formed the family of nobility from which kings and other chiefs made matrimonial alliance.

The period of three centuries between C 600 and C 900 AD relates to the reign of the Pallavas of Kanchi and Pandyas of Madurai who ruled over the entire Tamila Nadu with their boundary in between their empires oscillating on either side of river Kaveri the bone of contention being Cholamandalam the home of Cholas and the fertile Kaveri delta that was the granary of the south and as such always been the cynosure of all powers contending for supermacy during the entire historical period.  The Cholas themselves were in eclipse and hibernating only to revive again in the ninth century, when the Pallava power came to an end, the Pandyas were holding on for some more time to yield place ultimately to the waxing Chola power.

 

Though Mahendravarma Pallava (604-630 A.D) inherited the Pallava empire from his victorious father Simhavishnu that reached up to the bank of the Cauvery, Cholamandalam could not be retained by his immediate successor, as it was over-run by the Pandyas of the further south.  The tract north and south of river Vellar were in the hands of the Mutharayar chieftains who till their annihilation by the resurgent Chola line of Vijayalaya, were owing alternate allegiance to the super powers.  The Irukkuvelirs, at the end became the firm allies of the Cholas.

Thus, one cannot expect to find early Pallava monuments, antiquities and inscriptions in Pudukkottai region but only those of the contemporary Pandyas along with those of Mutharaiyars and Irukkuvelirs.  Later Pallavas wrested the tract from the hands of the Pandyas.   The tract come under the Pallavas from the time of Nandhivarman-II (730-796 AD) when the Pallavas power reasserted itself in Cholamandalam and the tract south of Kaveri, reaching a little south beyond Vellar, comprising the northern half of the Pudukkottai district.  This period is thus marked by the presence of rock cut cave temples of the Pandyas and Mutharaiyars.

 

The available historical evidence under the first Pandya empire is rather scanty.  The best known is the inscription at Sittannavasal in the reign of Srimara Srivallaba (851-862 AD) and at Kudumianmalai in the reign of Kochadayan Ranadheeran or Sadayan Maran (C 700-730 AD).  In the reign of Maravarman Rajasimha-I (C 730-760 AD) a number of battles were faught against the Pallavas, one of the sites was Kodumbalur. The inscription of the reign of Nedunchadayan, (C 768-816 AD) the greatest king of the dynasty is found in Thirugokarnam and Nirpalani. Of the reign of three successors of Srimara Srivallaba ending with Rajasimha-II (C 920 AD)  who lost his kingdom to the resurgent Cholas, there are no reference about the Pandya rulers in the district.

 

The Pallava references to places and incidents in the district are equally scanty. The earliest reference of the historical events in the district find place in the Pandya records of Velvikudi and Sinnamanur plates which say that Maravarman Rajasimha defeated Nadhivarman Pallava Malla at Kodumbalur.  The inscriptions of his successors are found in Kunnandarkoil, Malayadipatti and Rasalipatti.

The age of Pallavas and Pandyas of the first empire, the Mutharaiyars and Irukkuvelirs was the age of Tamil Bhakthi Movement.  The Thevaram mentions several temples in the district.   The three Nayanmars from this district were, Idangalinayanar of Kodumbalur, Perumizhalai Kurumbanayanar associated with Devarmalai and Kulachirai Nayanar  of Manamelgudi.

Jainism well flourished in Pudukkottai area up to 11th century. There are a number of Jaina vestiges in the district.

The Buddhist vestiges in the district come from the former Thanjavur district.  Buddha idols are found at Kottaipattinam and Karur.

With the exit of Pallavas from the political scene and the subsequent elimination of the Pandya power by the Cholas who established themselves at Thanjavur as their capital at the close of 9th century.  By 11th century they extended their sway even beyond, Tamilakam.   Pudukkottai among many other places come under them.  Their rule extended till about the middle of 13th century when the Pandyas staged a comeback.

Under Chola Vijayalaya, this district formed part of his dominion but perhaps fitfully.   The notion that some temples of nineth century in the district, belong to early Chola period, is erroneous.  The Pandyas still held power in the region.  It was not until the reign of Parantaka-I (907-955 AD). Vijayalay’s second successor, that the Cholas conquered the entire Pandya land.  The Kodumbalur chiefs helped Parantaka in his campaign and remained faithful to the Cholas thereafter.

The rule of Rajaraja-I shows a brilliant part in the history of the district in common with that of Tamil Nadu.  The full benefaction of the Chola rule is revealed in their inscriptions in the district.  These inscriptions are of great value is showing how effectively local administration functioned in this part of Chola Kingdom. 

Rajaraja-I appointed his son the viceroy of the conquered Pandya and Chera lands.  The entire district formed part of the Chola kingdom until the last year of Kulothunga-III (1178-1218 AD).  At the death of Rajaraja-II and the succession of Rajadhiraja-II, the Chola power began to decline.

The Pandyas began to assert their independence from the time of Kulothunga-I.  Towards the end of the reign of Raja Raja-II, Kulasekara one of the two contenders for Pandya throne pealed the Chola for help.  His rival Parakrama turned towards Srilanka.   Pudukkottai also become seat this civil war.  Parakrama Babu the Srilanka king sent an army to assist Parakrama Pandya according to Culavamsa, the Sinhalese chornicle the Sinhalese army  engaged itself in the war in the parts of the district and burnt down the three storeyed palace at Ponnamaravathi.  The outcome of the civil war became disastrous to the Cholas.

The history of the district after the fall of Cholas could not be told in detail for the records are comparatively minimal..  The Pandyas of the second empire spread their influence in the district gradually.

The Pandya power reached its height in the district under Jatavarman Sundra Pandya-I and Jatavaraman vira Pandya-I the joint rulers.  The inscription of Virapandya in Kudumianmalai, throws much light on his relationship with Srilanka and his kingdom across the seas.   During the reign of Maravarman Kulasekara-I who acceded in 1268 A.D, Marcopolo the Venetian traveler visited Pandya country.  Towards the end of Kulasekara’s   reign Jatavarman Virapandya-II and Jatavarman Sundara Pandya-II, the brothers quarreled.  This led to a civil war in Pandya country resulting  in political unrest and confusion.

Malikafur the general of Alaudeen Khalji  the Sultan of  Delhi took advantage of this and invaded Pandya country. This led to the incorporation of the Pandya country in the Delhi empire in subsequent years.  A sultanate  was established at Madurai.  There are two inscriptions relating to the period of the Sultans of Madurai in the district, one at Rangiam (1332 AD) and another at Panaiyur (1344 A.D).

The brief spell of Muslim rule (Sultanate of Madurai) at Madurai lasted for about 75 years and again there was political unrest and chaos and Pudukkottai region also shared the fate.   Minor princes ruled small territories here and there.  By about 1371 AD. Kumarakampana, the Vijayanagar prince took over Madurai and the Sultanate came to an end.   But the Pandya power did not survive on the Hindu conquest and slowly it ceased to be a historical force in the district.

The Hoysalas of Karnataka arrived in the southern part of Tamil Nadu and actively intervened Chola – Pandya feuds and soon they came to occupy the region on either banks of river Cauvery with the capital at Kannanur (modern Samayapuram).  They established themselves in the area by the middle of 13th century and much of the Pudukkottai area was under their sway till the end of 13th century.

The Vijayanagar Rayas centered in Hampi took over Madurai, from the Muslims when the whole of southern Karnataka, Andra and Tamilnadu came under one rule – the Vijayanagar empire.

Under the Vijayanagar Sangama dynasty (1336-1485 A.D) the inscriptions in the district refer to many local chiefs such as Suraikudi, Perambur, Sendavanmangalam, Vanadaraiyar, Gangaiaraiyar and Thondaimans of Aranthangi.  During the brief Suluva rule (1485-1505 A.D) Narasimha Raya the first Suluva emperor, during a tour of his dominions passed through Pudukkottai country on his way to Madurai.  Vira Narasimha Nayak, the Tuluva usurper and the general of Saluva Narasimha-I, led a campign against the Pandya chiefs and marched through Pudukkottai.

A great Personality of the Tuluva dynasty (1505-1570 A.D) was Krishna Deveraya (1509-1529 A.D). He had visited Brahadamba Gokarnesa temple at Thirugokarnam on his way to Rameswaram and gifted many valuable presents to the temple.   Under his successor eastern part of Pudukkottai district formed part of the Thanjavur kingdom for some time and the rest was under the Madurai Nayaks.  The Thondaimans of Pudukkottai rose to power by about the end of 17th century.

The provincial viceroys of the Vijayanagar empire, the Nayaks of Madurai and Thanjavur asserted independence after the downfall of the empire.  The Pudukkottai area thus came under the Nayaks of Madurai nominally and under the Thanjavur Nayaks frequently.

The Thondaimans of Pudukkottai came to rule with full sovereignty over the Pudukkottai area from the middle of the 17th century till it’s amalgamation with the rest of India after Indian Independence in 1947.

The ancestors of the Pudukkottai ruling line of Thondaimans, are migrants from Thiruppathi region in the Thondaimandalam, the northern stretch of the ancient Tamil Kingdom, along with the Vijaynagar army, which was in engagement in this part of territory in the early 17th century.  It is probable that one among them got some lands assigned to him by   the local Pallavarayar chieftain and settled down at Karambakudi and Ambukovil area, and became the chieftain of the area, later came to be called as the progenitor of Thondaimans of Pudukkottai ruling house.  According to the legendary account found in a Telugu poem, Thondaiman Vamasavali, the Thondaimans belonged to Indravamsa and the first ruler was Pachai Thondaiman.

Avadi Raya Thondaiman, the successor of Pachai Thondaiman, with the favour of Venkata Raya-III (1630-1642 A.D) the king of Vijayanagar got extented the land in his possession in the region and he was also conferred the title Raya.  The Avadai Raya Thondaiman inherited Vijayanagar tradition and the Thondaimans of later period adopted it.

His son Ragunatha Raya Thondaiman came close to the Nayak of Thanjavur and Rangakrishna Muthuvirappa Nayak of Tiruchirappalli.  He was appointed as the arasu kavalar of Tiruchirappalli.  Vijaya Raghunatha Kilavan Sethupathi (1673-1710 A.D) the Sethupathi ruler of Ramanathapuram married Kathali Nachiar the sister of Thondaiman. This marriage strengthened the ties between these dynasties.  The Sethupathi presented the tract of land to the south of Vellar to the Thondaiman.  Thus the Pudukkottai territory was enlarged.  This account is called the Sethupathi origin of Pudukkottai country and expansion of Thondaiman rule.  the Thondaiman’s rule was established south of Vellar and Raghunatha Raya Thondaiman was in estimation to the status of a bigger territory by about 1686 A.D., and he ruled up to 1730 A.D.

About the time that Raghunatha Raya Thondaiman became the ruler of Pudukkottai, Namana Thondaiman, his brother became the chief of Kulathur Palayam (present Kulathur taluk area) with the blessings of the Nayak king Ranga Krishna Muthuvirappa of Tiruchirappalli (1682-1689 A.D) and Kulathur continued as seperate “principality – with it’s ruler known as Kulathur Thondaiman ” till about 1750 A.D when it was annexed to Pudukkottai.  Reghunatha also got some territories by victory, consolidating Pudukkottai rule roughly constituting the former Kulathur, Alangudi and Thirumayam taluks.  The tract contained in these taluks, later came to be known as Pudukkottai State (Pudukkottai Samasthanam).

Vijaya Raghunatha Raya Thondaiman (1730-1769 A.D) was the second in the line of Thondaimans. During his period the whole of  India come under the umbrella of the Mughals.   The Nayakdoms of Ginjee, Thanjavur and Madurai were subjugated and became tributaries of the Mughal rule so also the smaller palayams which were under them.   The Nizam of Hydrabad was appointed as the Mughal representative of South India, in turn the Nizam entrusted the Tamilnadu region then known as Carnatic, to the Nawab of Arcot.  Many of the tributory states did not remit the tributes regularly and such provinces were invaded by the Nawab’s forces.  Nothing like this happened in the case of Pudukkottai and was left undisturbed by the Nawab.

The famous war of succession to the office of Nawab of Carnatic between Mohamad Ali and Chanda Sahib, became in due course a war of supermacy between the English and the French in South India which resulted in the Carnatic wars.  The French supported the cause of Chanda Sahib and the English were on the side of Mohamed Ali.  The war lasted for many years mainly around Tiruchirappalli.  The Thondaiman was firmly on the side of the English at his time while the rulers like Thanjavur Marathas wavered. At last the English emerged as the masters of this land.  This firm help of the Thondaiman to the English was rewarded by the exemption of tribute by the victorious Nawab and later this was continued by the English.

The Thondaiman’s act of friendship towards English continued by the next ruler Raya Raghunatha Thondaiman (1769-1789 A.D). Because of this the Thondaiman had to encounter the strong forces of Hyder Ali.

Vijaya Raghunatha Thondaiman (1789 – 1807 A.D) helped the English and the Nawb.  The Nawab Mohamed Ali conferred up on the Thondaiman the title “Raja Bahadur”.  The political wind was in favour of the English.  The entire Carnatic region was taken over by the English by 1800.  During the process of consolidation of the English rule, the Thanjavur Maratha kingdom was taken away, Ramanathapuram was reduced to a Jamindari but Pudukkottai was on the firm grounds and it was allowed to be seperate principality (not as a part of British India) with honours and was high in British favour.   Pudukkottai was treated as a State and the Raja was quasi-independent ruler with full powers of administration.

It was during the time of this ruler Vijaya Raghunatha Thondaiman, the Poligar war took place between the English and the rebelious palayakars of Thirunelveli, the most significant of whom was Veerapandia Kattabomman or Kattabommu Nayak.  Kattabomman defied the authority of English in collecting revenues on the Sicar lands and also in remitting the tribute regularly.  Hostilities commenced against him, and Panchalamkurichy fort was attacked.  Kattabomman escaped and was proceeding to Sivaganga through the forest in the Thondaiman country.  At the request of the English administration Kattabomman was captured near Thirumayam by the soldiers of Thondaiman and handed over to the English at Madurai.  Later Kattabomman was hanged at Kayattar.  The defiant valour of Kattabomman came to be better appreciated with the passage of time.  While Kattabomman has risen in general estimation as a hero, the image of Thondaiman as reflected in the events of the time, has suffered a fall because capturing and handing over of Kattabomman and come to be regarded as betrayal and as an unpatriotic act. Seen however in the political backround then prevailed in the context of Thondaiman’s fidelity to the English in prosperity and adversity and to the fact that Kattabomman never sought asylum with Thondaiman and hence the Thondaiman’s role may objectively summed up as the reflex action of the ally and does not amount to betrayal.

The next ruler Raja Vijaya Reghunatha Raya Thondaiman (1807-1825 AD) was crowned when he was a minor and the British Government appointed Major John Black Burn, to undertake the management of the province of Pudukkottai.  Since he was the former Resident of Thanjavur he brought to Pudukkottai a good deal of Thanjavur administration of Maratha mystique and Marathi was the language of administration of Pudukkottai for about seventy five years.  Revenue and Judicial administration of same method and complexity were introduced in Pudukkottai. A palace with citadels and broad moat was constructed for the Thondaiman (the old palace in the centre of the town).  The town was planned with straight roads bisecting each other in the four directions of the palace and thus Black Burn laid the foundation for modern town of Pudukkottai. (This  palace, “The old palace” has disappeared completely, we can see the remains of the high wall in a few places in the vicinity of the present west main street and south main street (Rajaveethi)).

 

Raghunatha Thondaiman (1825 – 1839 A.D) was conferred with the title “His Excellency” by the British Government.  He planned in 1830 to bring the Cauvery water to Pudukkottai through a new canal but could not succeed due to paucity of funds.  Raghunatha Thondaiman was succeeded by his son Ramachandra Thondaiman (1839 – 1886).

His long tenure of office was marked by extravagance and gross mismanagement.  An administrator Seshaia Sastri arrived at the scene as Dewan in 1878 and carried out many reforms.  Among them was the remodelling of Pudukkottai town incorporating the principles of town planning which were little followed in the country at that time.   The towering administrative office building in red brick colour in Pudukkottai was constructed under the supervision of Seshaiah Sastri.  The Pudukkulam, the big lake in the town was another creation of Seshaiah Sastri.  Ramachandra Thondaiman has renovated many  temples in the State.  He was succeeded by Marathanda Bhairava Thondaiman.

Marthanda Bhairava Thondaiman (1886-1929) became the ruler of the state at the age of 11. The administration was looked after by a council with the approval of the British Government.   He toured in Europe extensively.  He married an Australian lady.  A son was born to him though this marriage (later known as Sydny Marthanda).  But his succession was opposed by the public.  The British administration also refused to recognise the marriage.  Hence the Raja abdicated his throne  and settled in Paris and died in 1928 and cremated at London.

Raja Rajagopala Thondaiman (1928 -1948) the last and ninth in the line of Thondaiman rulers, was selected by  the British Government and was crowned when he was six years old.   The administration was looked after by English administrators, among them Alexandar Totenham was noteworthy.  The important architectural contribution of this period is the New Palace – which was built in 1930 in Indo – Serasenic Dravidian architecture.   This beautiful granite structure now houses the District Collector’s Office.   After Indian independence in 1947, the Pudukkottai Princely State was amalgamated with Indian Union on 04/03/1948 and became a division in Tiruchirappalli district. The long history of the Thondaimans rule came to an end.

Such a brief historical sketch covering a period of time of over two millennia will beside acquainting one with the political forces and trends of the area located at the centre of Tamil Nadu, will help to appreciate the nature, variety, origin chronology and importance of the monuments their inscriptions architecture, sculptures iconography and other aesthetic contents.

இங்கே பதிக்கப்ட்டது: on மே 30, 2009 at 6:03 பிப  பின்னூட்டமொன்றை இடுங்கள்  

காஞ்சிபுரம் மாவட்ட‍ வரலாறு

         Kancheepuram District had been administered by the Pallavas, Cholas, Vijayanagar rulers, Muhammadan Kings, and the British before Independence. 

Tondaimandalam was an ancient division of Tamil country comprising roughly the present districts of Kancheepuram, Chennai, Tiruvallur, Vellore and  Tiruvannamalai. The capital of Thondaimandalam was Kancheepuram.

The Major breakthrough in the district administration was in 1788 when, for the first time, Collector was appointed to the district. The district was split up into two divisions, Northern and Southern and placed under two Collectors. The names of the Collectors during 1790′s were Clerk and Balfour.

Lionel Place, the Collector in (1794-1799), created the posts of Sharistadars under the control of the Collector. Clerks were also appointed to assist the Sharistadars. The famous Madurantakam and Uthiramerur tanks were created by Place.        

                                                                        Karunguzhi became the headquarters of the district and it remained so upto 1859 when it was shifted to ‘Home Garden’ Saidapettai, except for a short spell (1825-1835) during which Kancheepuram served as the district headquarters. From 1859 to 1968 the Collector’s office was located in Saidapettai and with effect from 1st July 1968, Kancheepuram became the district headquarters.

Hodgson, the Head Assistant to the Collector succeeded Place as the Collector. The place he resided at Kancheepuram is still known in the name of Hodgsonpetta.

In 1800, Hodgson was succeeded by his Senior Assistant, Greenway. For the first time in 1801, the judicial function of the Collector was separated and Greenway became the provincial judge and Hepburn was appointed as the Collector of the zilla of Karunguli.

The Collector’s office was known as Public House. It was by this time that the Talook Cutcheries were built at Kancheepuram, Karunguli (for Maduarantakam), Tirukazhukundram (for Chengalpattu) and some more places. These public offices were the forerunners of the present Taluk Offices.

The position of the district administration in 1900′s was that the Collector having his headquarters at Saidapettai was assisted by a Sub-Collector and two General Deputy Collecotrs, six Tahsildars for six Taluks and five Deputy Tahsildars for five sub taluks. The Sub-Collector  and the General Deputy Collectors were the heads of the revenue divisions of Chengalpattu, comprising Chengalpattu, Madurantakam and Kancheepuram Taluks; Saidapettai comprising Saidapettai and Ponneri Taluks and Tiruvallur comprising the lone Taluk of Tiruvallur.

Later in 1911 when Sriperumbudur sub-taluk was upgraded as a full fledged taluk, the fourth revenue division was formed with headquarters at Kancheepuram comprising Kancheepuram and Sriperumbudur Taluks.

Consequent on the implementation of the Andra Pradesh and Madras Alteration of Boundaries Act, 1959, with effect from 1.4.1960, Tirutani Taluk and Pallipattu sub-taluk of Chittoor district of Andra Pradesh were transferred to Madras (Tamil Nadu) and annexed with the Chengalpattu District.

Later Gummidipoondi (1975), Uttiramerur (1978), Uthukkottai (1981) and Pallipattu (1981) subtaluks were upgraded as fullfledged taluks and total taluks in the district came to 12. On 1.7.1986, Cheyyur taluk demarcated by bifurcating the Madurantakam taluk.

Then the Chengalpattu-MGR district has been splitted into two as Kancheepuram and Tiruvallur Districts from 01.07.1997. On the same day, Tirukalukundram Taluk demarcated by bifurcating the Chengalpattu Taluk. Thus the new Kancheepuram District is formed from 01.07.1997 comprising of 8 Taluks, via, Kancheepuram, Sriperumbudur, Uthiramerur, Chengalpattu, Tambaram, Tirukalukundram, Madrandakam and Cheyyur.

Conjeevaram is the English name of the ancient Kancheepuram. Like all ancient cities, Kancheepuram is also situated on the banks of a river, Vegavati. The city was the capital of the Early Cholas as far back as the 2nd century BC and a Pallava capital between the 6th and 8th centuries. It is surrounded by the historic places like Mamallapuram, Thiruvannamalai, Vellore, Sholingar, Thiruthani and Thirupathi. The sculptures in Mamallapuram town are famous for Pallava’s architectures. the successive dynasties from Pallavas to Vijayanagar kings have consciously added to the architectural and religious grandeur and value through one thousand five hundred years.

Kalidasa has described, it to be the best among the cities (Nagareshu Kanchi) just as Jati (jasmine) is the sweetest amongst the flowers, Rambha the most beautiful amongst women and Grihasthasrama the most ideal amongst the four asramas of human life. The king of Kanchi, Mahendravarman-I was a great scholar and musician, a man of great intelligence and also a great playwright. Yuan Chwang, the great Chinese traveler, visited the city in the 7th century and said that this city was 6 miles in circumference and that its people were famous for bravery and piety as well as for their love of justice and veneration for learning. He further recorded that Buddha had visited the place. As regards learning, Kanchi stood second in glory only to Banaras.The history of Kanchi can be traced back to several centuries before the advent of the Christian era. The place finds its name in Patanjali’s Mahabhashya written in the second century B.C. Manimekalai, the famous Tamil classic, and Perumpanattu Padai, a great Tamil poetical work, vividly describe the city as it was at the beginning of the Christian era.Pathupattu, one of the sangam literatures reads that the king Thondaiman Ilandirayan ruled this town around 2500 years ago.

From the 3rd to the 9th century A.D. Kanchi was the capital of the Pallavas who ruled over the territory extending from the river Krishna in the north to the river Kaveri in the south. The Pallavas fortified the city with ramparts, moats, etc., with wide and well laid out roads and fine temples. They were a great maritime power with contacts with far-off China, Siam, Fiji, etc., through their chief Port Mamallapuram, the modern Mahabalipuram. The Cholas ruled this town from 10th century to 13th century. Kings of Vijayanagara dynasty ruled from 14th century to 17th century. The temple tower, 192 feet height in Ekamabaranadhar temple and 100-pillar mandabam (building) in Varadaraja Perumal temple in this town are famous for the architectural techniques of Vijayanagara Dynasty. The British Viceroy Robert cleave, who is responsible for the British Ruling in India had exclaimed the architectural techniques of Varadharaja perumal temple and presented a fabulous jewelry to this temple. Kanchi was a major seat of Tamil learning as well as an important place of pilgrimage for Buddhists, Jains and Hindus.Once the seat of learning and religious fervour started its climb down from the mughal ionvasions followed by three centuries of colonial rule under the british.

இங்கே பதிக்கப்ட்டது: on மே 30, 2009 at 5:54 பிப  பின்னூட்டமொன்றை இடுங்கள்  

திருவாரூர் மாவட்ட‍ வரலாறு

          The District of Tiruvarur was carved out as a separate district  by detaching Valangaiman Taluk from Thanjavur District and Thiruvarur, Nannilam, Kudavasal, Needamangalam, Mannargudi , Thirutturaippundi Taluks from Nagappatinam District on 01.01.1997. There are 2 Revenue Divisions, 7 Taluks, 10 Community Development Blocks, 3 Municipalties and 7 Town Panchayats in Thiruvarur District. Thiru M. R. Mohan IAS was the first District Collector of Thiruvarur District.

Thanjavur attained prominence under the  Chola    rulers  who were    paramount in South India during the 9th to 12th centuries. They were excellent rulers and mighty builders. Many examples are found in the district which bears testimony to this. Many of these temples reflect the geniusness and architectural proficiency in sculpture, painting and wood-carving.

The administration of Thanjavur (Tiruvarur) was given over to English fully under the Treaty of 1799. The  ruler of  Thanjavur  was  allowed  to  retain the fort of Thanjavur with very limited powers. When the ruler died in 1841, without heir,  the Thanjavur fort was also annexed by the British.  Thanjavur remained under the British rule until 1947 when India attained freedom.

இங்கே பதிக்கப்ட்டது: on மே 30, 2009 at 5:45 பிப  பின்னூட்டமொன்றை இடுங்கள்  
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